By S. Vasco. Washington Bible College / Capital Bible Seminary.

History Avicultural clients should be asked to prepare a writ- ten summary prior to taking a nestling psittacine chick to the veterinarian zestoretic 17.5mg on line. The past breeding and health history of the par- ents and condition of the chick’s siblings cheap zestoretic 17.5mg without a prescription. Brooder temperature generic zestoretic 17.5 mg, substrate, hygiene prac- tices (including exposure to any disinfectants) and condition of other birds in the nursery. During weaning, this extra weight is lost as the bird exercises more and assumes more adult pro- portions. The crop was partially filled with food but peristaltic a generalization, growth charac- activity appeared to be normal. The teristics vary with body size, and bird did not respond to supportive therapy. At necropsy, the heart was enlarged and a ventricular septal defect was identified. Physical Examination A thorough physical examination is as important in nestlings as it is in adults. During the examination, chilling and stress should be avoided by warming hands, warm- ing the room and keeping handling times to a minimum. Birds with food in the crop should be handled carefully to avoid regurgitation and aspiration. The bird’s head had been turned at a 180° eyes and ears should be carefully angle since hatching. Radiographs indicated a rota- examined to evaluate normal devel- tional deformity in the cervical vertebrae. Improper incubation parame- ters, nutritional deficiencies in the hen, infectious have a clear discharge from the eyes diseases, improper chick position in the egg and when they open. In macaws, the genetic flaws have all been proposed as etiologies of eyes usually open between 14 and spinal deformities. The 28 days following hatching; in abnormality was corrected within two weeks of ap- cockatoos, between ten and 21 days; plying a neck brace (courtesy of Martin Orr). A normal chick will be bright and alert, with the head raised in response to any activity that may suggest that it is feeding time. The ears are open at hatching in Old World Psittaciformes, and open from ten to 35 days of age in neotropical species. Nestlings can be examined in the same manner as adults but have physical characteristics that differ from adult birds. Particular attention should be paid to body conformation, spine and neck curvature and beak alignment and curvature (Figure 30. They may sleep in almost any position, including sprawled with their legs in the air. Until weaning, they sit on their hock joints, rather than up on their feet, using their protuberant abdo- men to create a tripod stance (Figure 30. This should be considered nor- mal unless a limb is held consistently in an abnormal position. Body Conformation Nestlings have relatively little muscle mass and a large, protuberant abdomen. As the bird ages, the muscle mass will increase, but even at weaning they will be thinner than in an adult. Body mass in young nest- lings is best assessed by noting the thickness of the muscle and subcutaneous fat covering the elbows, toes and hips. A neonate that is being properly cared for by the very full abdomen because the ventriculus and parents will always have a full crop, as seen in this neonatal proventriculus are greatly enlarged at this age. They are provided as suggested ranges only, as growth of an individual chick is dependent on hatch weight, body structure, sex, diet and feeding and husbandry practices. Comparison of data from two successful nurseries has indicated that birds with widely divergent body weights can successfully wean. Data from this table should be combined with observation of the conformation and physical condition of the chick before deciding if an individual is stunted in growth. Dehydrated nestlings will have dry, hyperemic skin that feels sticky to the touch (Color 30. Nestlings with white, cool skin are either hypothermic or moribund and need immediate attention. Some flaking of the skin is normal; excessive amounts of flaking indicate de- hydration or exposure to high temperature, low hu- midity or malnutrition. Feather Growth Most psittacine chicks are naked at hatch except for a sparse coating of down (Color 30. The first feath- ers appear on the head, wings, and tail, followed by feather emergence on the rest of the body (Figure 30. Gross discrepancies in the pattern of feather development may indicate stunted growth. Neonates being treated with antibiotics adult when compared on a per weight basis. Neonates should be 28 fed the maximum volume of food that does not over-stretch the crop may also have abnormally developed feathers. Crop Nestling birds have a greater crop capacity per body crop should be palpated for foreign objects and weight than adults, sometimes as much as two to trapped, doughy food, and examined externally for three times the adult volume (Figure 30. The crop redness or scabs that might indicate a burn or punc- should empty at least once daily; overstretched, dam- ture (Color 30. The fiber content of some formulated diets is higher than homemade formulas, and the droppings from birds fed those diets are less watery and more formed. Diagnostic Procedures Clinical Pathology The clinical pathology of nestling psittacine birds is poorly documented; however, recent publications have established reference intervals for some spe- cies.

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Animals were kept in animal house with also obtained which indicated a loss of 120 u a characteristic 12 hours light and 12 hours dark cycle and allowed to peak of C-glycosyl favonoids as mentioned byColombo et al order zestoretic 17.5mg fast delivery. Further more 96% cells graf were excised 4 weeks afer surgery and were histo- stained positive for both Vimentin and smooth muscle actin discount zestoretic 17.5 mg visa. Swertisin Efectively Potentiates Islet-Cell Diferentiation solution at room temperature for 1-2 hours purchase 17.5 mg zestoretic with amex. Afer 8-day in just 4 days with swertisin induction (Figures 6(c) and induction, cluster formation was observed microscopically 6(d)). C-peptide is a 3-4 kDa peptide released groups based on size, ranging from 150 to 300 m(Figure17) from insulin molecules within the beta cells. An increase A group, we found immense positive cytoplasmic staining of approximately 9. To monitor the presence of in time-dependent manner and confrmed for insulin bio- various islet hormones and diferentiation markers, immuno- genesis. Our data showed the process of diferentiation progress in time-dependent that both activin A and swertisin showed increased insulin manner. Immunoblot Confrmed Islet Diferentiation Pathway frst 4 days and then declined signifcantly by day 6 and Facilitation by Swertisin Induction. Apart from above observations, swertisin medi- dependent manner from day zero to day eight. ComparedtoactivinA,swertisin islet diferentiation by swertisin we also targeted Smad signal- clusters showed more steep decrease in vimentin protein, ingbymonitoringSmad2and7proteins. Te fgure depicts intense positive staining for insulin (green color), C-peptide (Green color), and glucagon (red color). Te fgure shows time- dependent expression of various stem/progenitor markers and key islet diferentiation pathway transcription factor during diferentiation protocolrangingfromday0today8. More of eosin staining resembles the graf staining similar to pancreatic islet section stain. Te fgure Presence of C-peptide, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin represents fasting blood glucose in time-dependent manner from using immunohistochemistry was also assessed. Te mean insulin secretion by swertisin-mediated clusters (100) was Te present study reframes a new arena to screen and identify 0. To overcome this limitation, we screened islet any signifcant release in C-peptide even upon high glucose diferentiation potential of bioactive agents from medicinal challenge (Figure 12(b)). Identifcation of such potent herbal active ingredient may revolutionize the therapeutic approach for 3. Islet specifc makers were also observed in these grafs, which show insulin (red), C-peptide (green), somatostatin (red), Pdx-1 (green), and Nestin (red). Numerous plants and their products have been demon- strated for antidiabetic activity in both cellular and ani- mal models [6–9]. Te majority of them were targeted to emphasize the ameliorating efect of hyperglycemia either by In similar directions, the author’s group has also reported increasing insulin secretion or by sensitizing downstream sig- islet diferentiating activity from E. Understanding and identifying the most potent islet to monitor the status of diabetic stressed beta cells within the neogenic active principle of this plant serves the aim of this pancreas upon such herbal treatments and mechanisms of study, which is the most essential criteria for developing the plant products mediated beta cell replenishment. Another group, Ansarullah ation to certain cell types have previously been reported et al. Smad4 with low expression of Smad1, Smad3, and Smad7 was For structure identifcation of an unknown compound, it earlier reported by Zhang et al. Mass fragmentation pattern of a base these cells possess the major functional capabilities of cells, peak of m/z 447 [M+H] corresponded to swertisin structure, namely, insulin release in response to changes in extracel- similar to earlier reports by Colombo et al. Te molecular proof of C-peptide in newly generated clusters confrmed that insulin this can be visualized by the fact that kidney graf isolated presence was the result of endogenous synthesis. Presence from transplanted animals showed the presence of viable islet of insulin or C-peptide is not sufcient enough to regulate architecture having immunopositivity for C-peptide, insulin, glucose, but presence of glucagon and somatostatin is also glucagon, and somatostatin along with basal expression of needed to maintain the homeostasis. Furthermore, a fasting blood glucose becomes a better strategy than that of cells alone [42]. Taken together, these results suggest that these induced diferentiation of glucagon and somatostatin positive cells to cells have a similar function to normal physiological islets providemoreorlessacompleteisletphenotypewithmature both in vitro and in vivo. Terefore, in conclusion, we state that swertisin is a Some groups have reported that stem cell diferentiation novel molecule which can serve as an efcient diferentiating into islet cells follows embryonic ontology and their gene agent generating islet-like cell types, with enormous yield and expression of diferentiated clusters should be similar to that mature functional status. Ngn-3 is known to and readily available diferentiating agents still remains a bethekeymasterregulatorofendocrinecellfate;initiation challenge unless we attempt to explore more medicinal herbal of islet diferentiation signaling occurs by early induction of products with potential stem cell conversion for miraculous Ngn-3 protein [45]. Te present study showed early induction therapeutic activities like islet neogenesis. Dadheech conceived and designed the lowering efect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume in diabetes: a possible mechanism of action,” Journal of experiments; S. Umezawa, “Conophylline: a novel diferen- tiation inducer for pancreatic cells,” International Journal of performed other experiments; N. Anandwardhan Hardikar, “Evaluation of efect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale blume in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats,” Indian National Center for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maha- Journal of Experimental Biology,vol. Goyal, “Efcacy of Enicostemma littorale in Type 2 diabetic patients,” Phytotherapy Research,vol. Eisenbarth, “Type 1 diabetes: new per- “Enicostemma littorale: a new therapeutic target for islet neoge- spectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment,” Te Lancet, nesis,” International Journal of Integrative Biology,vol. Tojo, “Bone marrow stromal cells molecular imaging,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine,vol. Gurib-Fakim, “Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and endocrine progenitor cells in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investi- drugs of tomorrow,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine,vol.

Restrictions in the extent of development was most apparent in the Mexican axolotl cheap zestoretic 17.5mg fast delivery. Therefore zestoretic 17.5 mg online, the vast majority of notochord nuclei were severely restricted in their developmental capac- ity purchase zestoretic 17.5mg without a prescription. Failure of development following nuclear transplantation was associated with the presence of chromosomal abnormalities, which included ring chromosomes, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragments, and variable numbers of chromosomes. From these results, Briggs and co-workers (1964) concluded: “The central question therefore concerns the origin of these chromosomal abnormalities. Are they to be regarded as artifacts, or do they indicate a genuine restriction in the capacity of the somatic nuclei to function normally following transfer into egg cytoplasm? In subsequent experiments, primary cultures were used as a source of nuclei in an effort to provide more uniform populations. Also, “serial nuclear transplanta- tion” gained favor to improve rates of development beyond the blastocyst stage. Serial nuclear transplantation involved a first round of nuclear transfer to produce partially cleaved blastocysts. The positive effects of serial nuclear transplantation were not improved by additional rounds of nuclear transplantation, suggesting that sequential nuclear reprogramming was not taking place. Using serial nuclear transplantation, partial or complete blastulae were obtained at rates of 22 to 31% using cultures of kidney, lung, heart, testis, and skin from adult frogs as donor nuclei for serial nuclear transplantation. Swimming tadpoles devel- oped when nuclei for the initial transfers were from adult kidney, lung, and skin but not heart. Based on these results, it would appear that <10% of cells from the primary nuclear transplant embryos were able to undergo successful genetic repro- gramming and direct successful development of tadpoles. It is also important to note that some developmental abnormalities were evident in tadpoles derived from nuclear transplantation. The descriptions were not extensive, but anal and cardiac edema were reported and resulted in subsequent death. Since a relatively small proportion of donor nuclei were able to form even blastocysts following nuclear transplantation, it remained possible that embryos resulted only from a subpopulation of cells that retained stem cell-like characteris- tics. To rule out this possibility, primary cell cultures were established from foot- web explants and were shown to be differentiated by the expression of keratin in >99. Although no first-transfer embryos developed beyond early cleavage embryos, serial transplantation resulted in swimming tadpoles with well- differentiated organs. Attempts to confirm these results in Drosophila yielded development of larvae but no adults. This result was extended by Schubiger and Schneiderman (1971) when it was shown that preblastoderm nuclei could be transplanted into oocytes, then develop 8 to 10 days when placed in a mature female. These implants were retrieved, then dissociated, and the nuclei were again used for serial nuclear transplantation. The serial nuclear transplant embryos were transferred into developing larvae where they underwent metamorphosis along with their hosts to form adult tissues. Therefore, extensive genetic reprogramming of donor nuclei was possible but required serial nuclear transplantation similar to that used in amphibia. Conclusions The work with amphibia clearly demonstrated that nuclear transplantation could be used to efficiently generate multiple cloned individuals using blastomeres from early cleavage embryos. Although rates of development were diminished when more highly differentiated cell types were used as donors for nuclear transplanta- tion, it was possible to generate live offspring. Therefore, differentiation was reversible and developmental fates were subject to reprogramming under appro- priate conditions. The extent of development following nuclear transplantation also varied considerably among tissues. Gurdon (1970) voiced caution that “nuclear transplantation experiments can only provide a minimum estimate of developmen- tal capacity of a nucleus or a population of nuclei. The proportion of nuclear transfer embryos that result in live births may reflect the relative infrequency of specific stem cells that may be more amenable to nuclear reprogramming. The more limited reprogram- ming observed with Mexican axolotl and Drosophila may indicate that some changes are irreversible. If true, then some organisms or cell types may have bio- logical barriers preventing nuclear reprogramming. At this point, the molecular basis for nuclear reprogramming was left to conjecture. The value of being able to make multiple clones of genetically superior livestock for the purpose of intensifying genetic selection was not lost on agricultural scientists. As a result, efforts to apply nuclear transplantation to create cloned livestock were under- taken by several groups. Overview of the Procedures The nuclear transplantation procedures were pioneered in 1952 in R. The donor cells were most conveniently handled in suspension following trypsinization. The donor cells were drawn into a glass micropipet, then inserted into the enucleated egg between the center and the animal pole. The intact donor cell, with its nucleus, cytoplasm, and membranes, was expelled into the recipient egg. The membranes surrounding the recipient cell should heal spontaneously as the pipet is withdrawn. The eggs were then transferred to buffered media and cleavage proceeded as manipulation of the oocyte was suf- ficient activation stimulus in amphibians. Nuclear transplantation procedures in mammals involve four specific steps: (1) enucleation, (2) transfer of a donor nucleus along with its associated cytoplasm, (3) fusion of the donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm, and (4) activation of cleavage (Fig. Enucleation is accomplished by inserting a glass micropipet through the zona pelucida and withdrawing the polar body and metaphase chromosomes.

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Blood loss is the most common cause of iron deficiency in women of childbearing age cheap zestoretic 17.5 mg on-line. Interestingly enough order zestoretic 17.5 mg overnight delivery, iron deficiency is a common cause of excessive menstrual blood loss purchase zestoretic 17.5mg amex. The negative effects of iron deficiency are due largely to the impaired delivery of oxygen to the tissues and the impaired activity of iron-containing enzymes in various tissues. Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, excessive menstrual blood loss, learning disabilities, impaired immune function, and decreased energy levels and physical performance. The iron-dependent enzymes involved in energy production and metabolism will be impaired long before anemia occurs. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia Vitamin B12 deficiency is most often due to a defect in absorption, not a dietary lack. In order for vitamin B12 to be absorbed from food, it must be liberated from food by hydrochloric acid and bound to a substance known as intrinsic factor within the small intestine. The B12–intrinsic factor complex is absorbed in the small intestine with the aid of the pancreatic enzyme trypsin. In order for vitamin B12 to be absorbed, an individual must secrete enough hydrochloric acid, intrinsic factor, and pancreatic enzymes, including trypsin, and have a healthy and intact ileum (the end portion of the small intestine, where the vitamin B12–intrinsic factor complex is absorbed). The defect is rare before the age of 35, and it is more common in individuals of Scandinavian, English, and Irish descent. A dietary lack of vitamin B12 is most often associated with a vegan diet (a vegetarian diet that includes no milk products or eggs). Unlike other water-soluble nutrients, vitamin B12 is stored in the liver, kidney, and other body tissues. As a result, signs and symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency may not show themselves until after five to six years of poor dietary intake or inadequate secretion of intrinsic factor. However, it appears that a deficiency of vitamin B12 will affect the brain and nervous system before anemia develops. The diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is best made by measuring the vitamin B12 level in the blood. Most physicians, however, simply rely on the presence of large red blood cells and characteristic symptoms. Symptoms of severe B12 deficiency can include paleness; easy fatigability; shortness of breath; a sore, beefy red, and swollen tongue; diarrhea; and heart and nervous system disturbances. Common symptoms include numbness and tingling of the arms or legs, depression, mental confusion, loss of the ability to sense vibration, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Folic Acid Deficiency Folic acid deficiency is the most common vitamin deficiency in the world. The body does not store a large surplus of folic acid (unlike vitamin B12); it stores only enough to sustain itself for one to two months. Other symptoms of folic acid deficiency include diarrhea, depression, and a swollen, red tongue. Folic acid deficiency is extremely common among alcoholics, as alcohol consumption impairs absorption of folic acid, disrupts its metabolism, and causes the body to excrete it. Folic acid deficiency is also common among pregnant women because of the developing fetus’s high demands. If the fetus does not have a constant source of folic acid, birth defects such as neural tube defects may result. If alcohol is consumed during pregnancy, the alcohol may lower folic acid levels, leading to fetal alcohol syndrome or neural tube defects. In addition to alcohol, there are a number of drugs that can induce folic acid deficiency, including anticancer drugs, drugs for epilepsy, and oral contraceptives. Folic acid deficiency is quite common among patients who have chronic diarrhea or malabsorption states such as celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, or tropical sprue. Since a deficiency of folic acid will result in diarrhea and malabsorption, often a vicious circle ensues. The administration of folic acid as a preventive measure is warranted for anyone experiencing chronic diarrhea. Therapeutic Considerations The treatment of anemia is dependent on proper clinical evaluation by a physician. It is imperative that a comprehensive laboratory analysis of the blood be performed. General Nutritional Support for All Types of Anemia Perhaps the best food for an individual with any kind of anemia is calf liver. Green leafy vegetables are also of great benefit to individuals with any kind of anemia. These vegetables contain natural fat-soluble chlorophyll (a molecule similar to the hemoglobin molecule) as well as other important nutrients, including iron and folic acid. Only fat- soluble chlorophyll can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; the water-soluble form cannot and so has no use in the treatment of anemia. Since a large percentage of individuals with anemia do not secrete enough hydrochloric acid, it is often important to take hydrochloric acid supplements with meals. See the chapter “Digestion and Elimination” for more information and dosage instructions. Supplementing with folic acid will correct the anemia of a vitamin B12 deficiency, but it cannot overcome the problems that vitamin B12 deficiency causes in the brain. Also, a high level of folic acid will actually aggravate the problems caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Support for Iron Deficiency Anemia Again, treatment of any type of anemia should focus on underlying causes. For iron deficiency anemia, this typically involves finding a reason for chronic blood loss or for why an individual is not absorbing sufficient amounts of dietary iron.

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Assistive technology services (coun- seling purchase 17.5 mg zestoretic, consumer-directed personal assistance device cheap 17.5mg zestoretic visa, agency-directed personal assistance device 17.5 mg zestoretic free shipping, rehabilitation center, trial center…) (7) con- tribute to device acceptance and proper use. This subjective judgment affects the evaluation process, which must determine the ability of the assistive device-user cou- ple to perform tasks which otherwise could not have been achieved (de- vice efficacy or efficiency), assess modalities of task execution (operative quality), and examine use of the assistive device in real-life situations (ac- ceptability). Irrespective of its technological proper- ties, the device must first and foremost provide real assistance for activi- ties of daily life. If this crucial condition is not fulfilled, the device will be abandoned rapidly, a situation which is not exceptional and which can be a useful evaluation parameter (8, 9). Comparison between expected and real perfor- mance is the best way to evaluate functional efficacy. Since performance depends both on the device itself and on the user, the goal is to achieve con- cordance between device performance and user expectations. Evaluating a given device employed by a given user in a given clinical situation enables distinction between individual-related and context-related parameters. Difficulties en- countered during use, and the corresponding circumstances or specific limitations, particularly discomfort or problems with associated tasks, can be recognized. The second objective is to establish formal indications, con- traindications, precautions for use, risks, surveillance procedures, and lim- its of device efficacy. This requires a collective approach where individual trials are considered together. Data acquired from individual and collective trials are mandatory to obtain marketing approval and determine appro- priate prescription (10) as well as eligibility for institutional or organiza- tional funding. The way a device is used must be carefully analyzed so as to ensure that the energy output or specific movements or postures re- quired to use the device do not have short- or long-term pathogenic effects. Even if appropriate, an assistive device will not be used regularly for a prolonged period if it is not accepted by the user. Acceptability, a mea- surement of the way technical assistance is employed in everyday life, is re- lated to how well the user tolerates the constraints and discomfort imposed by the device. Ease-of-use (after appropriate learning and/or training, which implies accessibility to the learning process), ergonomics (3, 11) (en- ergy output and fatigue (12, 13), weight, volume, simplicity, command in- terface…), and device availability (anywhere, any time), reliability, and in- tercompatibility (combined use with other assistive technologies) as well as appropriation by the user and family or caregivers, are essential factors. The esthetic aspect of the device vehicles a specific image of technological assistance affecting both the user’s self-image and the regard of others. The device should not focus attention on the user’s disability (principle of trans- parence) and should have a favorable effect on the user’s image (e. The way a user personalizes the device, adapting it to changing body morphology, physical capacity (disease progression, aging), and lifestyle, greatly affects compliance and acceptability. In other words, the question is whether the “device compensates for the initial disability”. Is there adequate correspondence between the assistive device and user’s capacities and activity project in the context(s) in which the project is to be accomplished? Another domain to evaluate is the user’s self-assessment of the quali- ty of the compensation, i. The efficiency of a given device may in itself generate effects having a neg- ative impact on its acceptability. The user’s early enthusiasm may wear off, sometimes rapidly, particularly when the device compensates for an artificial activity. Like the placebo effect, it takes at least three months for this effect to dissipate. Determined by the user who has re- ceived appropriate counseling and information, the activity project must be realistic. Likewise, the proposed technical assistance (one or more devices, possible adaptation of the environment) must be rea- sonably expected to be effective. The level of the user’s motivation must also be assessed to determine the degree of impli- cation. It is thus desirable to conduct trials in real-life or simulated situations (15) in order to as- sess the impact on the activities requiring compensation. They involve anthropo- logical features (body integrity, pain, mobility, sensorial status, func- tional abilities, installation and positioning in bed or wheel chair), cognitive features (intellectual capacity, schooling, occupational ac- tivity), and behavioral and lifestyle features (personal appearance, so- ciability, role, familial and social activities). These trials have a determining effect on user ap- propriation and acceptation because they enable users to make real- life comparisons and choose their own assistive device. The decision- making process is personalized, avoiding the problem of third-party assessment. Though self-assessment must predominate, the opinion of rehabilitation professionals, care agencies, manufacturers, sales representatives, and healthcare economists can be very helpful to clarify the user’s choice and improve device performance (17). Achievement of an assigned task is scored successful or unsuccessful, with further precision provided by details concerning its execution: ra- pidity, effort, risk. Effective use of the technical assistance is assessed with an activity index (duration or frequency of device use per day) which can be determined from direct observation or monitoring recordings (remote surveillance (19), teletransmission, integrated measurements). It is also important to assess the adequacy of the user’s initiatives and the appro- priateness of device use. Efficacy can also be assessed indirectly with in- struments measuring life improvement or independence, e. Declining de- mand for assistance during activities of daily living also affects device ef- ficacy (21-23). The Delphi scale is another evaluation method adapted to technical assistive devices by Batavia and Hammer (33).

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