By V. Barrack. Concordia University, Mequon Wisconsin. 2018.

Production Filling Labeling/Packaging Quality Control Engineering Maintenance Quality Assurance Marketing & Supply General Administration & Account Procurement & Stores 2 Are they skilled/trained in fields such as biology quality manxxx 30 caps, microbiology generic 30caps manxxx otc, chemistry veterinary medicine purchase 30 caps manxxx free shipping, chemical or industrial engineering, etc.? Engineering Production Department(s) Filling Quality Control Quality Assurance Animal Care 298 1. Are they designed with an atmospheric break to prevent back- siphonage from sewer? Are they maintained in a manner that permits identification of the product with the 319 particular manufacturing and sterilization process? Observations to be noted by Remark Location and surroundings: the inspecting team at the time of inspection 1. What are the measures employed to prevent the entry of insects, rodents, flies, etc. Specify the nature of construction used in the facility in respect of its maintenance and hygienic conditions. What measures have been taken to make Interior surface of (walls, floors, and ceilings) be smooth, even and washable, water-proof and capable of being kept clean and shall be such as not to permit retention or accumulation of dust. Specify material of construction and finish for walls, ceiling, floor, coving etc. Pls attach equipment lay out, men and material movement, waste movement if applicable. Attach copy of pest / rodent control schedule along with contract agreement if any. Pls specify source of raw water and give details of treatment processes, sampling points, distribution and storage system for raw and purified water. Health, clothing and sanitation of workers: - Whether all personnel prior to employment have undergone medical 4. Pls specify nature and type of dress used by the personnel in various areas of operation. Whether arrangements provided for cleaning of outside dust and dirt from foot Please specify whether hands are disinfected before entering the production area Whether for sterile garments in house clean laundry has been provided. Are they clean and dry and maintained within acceptable temperature limits where ever required. If not what provision has been made for sampling so as to prevent mix-ups at a time of sampling. Whether All such raw materials shall be identified and assigned control reference number. What is the air class of this areas and whether pressure difference is maintained in these areas? Specify the nature of floor, ceiling, fixtures and service lines to meet the clean room requirements as per design qualification. Specify the nature of work benches whether the top of which are smooth impervious & capable of being washed. Specify the arrangement for in and out of materials including device parts, primary packaging materials and primary packed device from this area, any material transfer pass box provided? Please specify the provision of air conditioned and ventilation system for the animal house. Whether the products sterilized in this manner shall be monitored to assure acceptable levels of residual 352 gas and its degradation products. Specify the total area provided for basic installation of such facility:- Whether adequate space provided for quarantine & sterilized items. Whether the Sterilization cycle validated with the use of physic- chemical parameters and biological indicators. In case of contractual testing what are the responsibilities of contract giver and contract acceptor. Please specify detailed account of sanitation program specific to various areas, equipment. If by electronic data processing system then how access is controlled to enter, modify etc. How the finished medical Devices evaluated whether the device is manufactured as per pre established specification, specify the standard 18. How promptly recall operation at the level of each distribution channel up- to the retail level can be carried out. Whether reports of serious reaction with comments and documents immediately sent to Licensing Authority Is there any criterion for action to be taken on the basis of nature of complaint / adverse reaction? Whether approval has been granted for carrying out testing on the following Categories of Drugs Items and Cosmetics 2. Other Drugs (Indicate Category) (a) Medicinal Gases (b) Diagnostics (c) Medical Devices 2. Sera, Vaccines, Antigens, Toxins, Antitoxins, Toxoids, Bacteriophages & similar Immunological products 2. Whether workbenches are constructed with acid, alkali and 367 solvent resistant material and are smooth and free from crevices 6. Whether any Standard Operating Procedure are available for breeding and care of animals, maintenance, cleaning or sanitation with suitable 368 schedule for cleaning of animal Cages, racks, floor and other equipments. Cabinet ii) Soxhlet extractor 370 iii) Oven iv) Scale v) Absorbency Tester vi) Balance (Analytical) vii) All equipment required for Sterility testing 8.

The relationship between a drug’s desired therapeutic effects and its adverse effects is called the drug’s therapeutic index buy 30caps manxxx with visa. The therapeutic index usually measures the differ- ence between: • an effective dose for 50% of the patients treated • the minimal dose at which adverse reactions occur generic 30 caps manxxx amex. Narrow index = potential danger Drugs with a narrow generic 30 caps manxxx with mastercard, or low, therapeutic index have a narrow margin of safety. This means that there’s a nar- row range of safety between an effective dose and a lethal one. On the other hand, a drug with a high thera- peutic index has a wide margin of safety and poses less risk of toxic effects. Dose-response curve This graph shows the dose- response curve for two different 100 drugs. As you can see, at low C D doses of each drug, a dosage increase results in only a small increase in drug response (for example, from point A to point B for drug X). At higher doses, an Drug X Drug Y increase in dosage produces a 50 much greater response (from point B to point C). As the dosage continues to climb, however, an increase in dosage B produces very little increase in response (from point C to point A E D). When choosing a drug to treat a particular condition, health care providers consider not only the drug’s effectiveness but also other factors such as the type of therapy the patient will receive. Coinciding medical condi- a drug tions and personal lifestyle characteristics must be considered Because no two people when selecting drug therapy. Drug tolerance occurs when a patient develops a decreased • age response to a drug over time. The patient then requires larger dos- • cardiovascular es to produce the same response. Drug interactions Drug interactions can occur between drugs or between drugs and foods. They can interfere with the results of a laboratory test or produce physical or chemical incompatibilities. The more drugs a patient receives, the greater the chances that a drug interaction Memory will occur. The effects are equivalent to the sum of either drug’s effects if it were administered alone in higher doses. Giving two drugs together, such as two analgesics (pain reliev- ers), has several potential advantages: lower doses of each drug, decreased probability of adverse reactions, and greater pain con- trol than from one drug given alone (most likely because of differ- ent mechanisms of action). There’s a decreased risk of adverse ef- fects when giving two drugs for the same condition because the patient is given lower doses of each drug—the higher the dose, the greater the risk of adverse effects. A synergistic situation A synergistic effect, also called potentiation, occurs when two drugs that produce the same effect are given together and one drug potentiates (enhances the effect of) the other drug. Fighting it out An antagonistic effect occurs when the combined response of two drugs is less than the response produced by either drug alone. An absorbing problem Two drugs given together can change the absorption of one or both of the drugs: • Drugs that change the acidity of the stomach can affect the abil- ity of another drug to dissolve in the stomach. Sometimes, an absorption-related drug interaction can be avoided by administering the drugs at least 2 hours apart. Bound and determined After a drug is absorbed, the blood distributes it throughout the body as a free drug or one that’s bound to plasma protein. When two drugs are given together, they can compete for protein-binding sites, leading to an increase in the effects of one drug as that drug is displaced from the protein and becomes a free, unbound drug. Toxic waste Toxic drug levels can occur when a drug’s metabolism and excre- tion are inhibited by another drug. Some drugs stimulate enzyme production, increasing metabol- ic rates and the demand for vitamins that are enzyme cofactors (which must unite with the enzyme in order for the enzyme to function). For instance, when food that contains Vitamin K (such as green, leafy vegeta- bles) is eaten by a person taking warfarin, the drug’s anticoagula- tion properties are decreased and blood clots may form. Grapefruit can inhibit the metabolism of certain medications, resulting in toxic blood levels; examples include fexofenadine, albendazole, and atorvastatin. Because of all the interactions food can have with drug metabolism, being aware of drug interactions is essential. Adverse drug reactions A drug’s desired effect is called the expected therapeutic re- sponse. An adverse drug reaction (also called a side effect or ad- verse effect), on the other hand, is a harmful, undesirable re- sponse. Adverse drug reactions can range from mild ones that dis- appear when the drug is discontinued to debilitating diseases that become chronic. Adverse reactions can appear shortly after start- ing a new medication but may become less severe with time. Dosage dilemma Adverse drug reactions can be classified as dose-related or patient sensitivity–related. Most adverse drug reactions result from the known pharmacologic effects of a drug and are typically dose- related. Dose-related reactions include: • secondary effects • hypersusceptibility • overdose • iatrogenic effects. For example, morphine used for pain control can lead to two extreme sensitivity to undesirable secondary effects: constipation and respiratory de- a drug. Diphenhydramine used as an antihistamine produces se- dation as a secondary effect and is sometimes used as a sleep aid.

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Editorial comments • Usually available in combination with other agents buy manxxx 30caps free shipping, including pseudoephedrine purchase 30caps manxxx otc, phenylephrine cheap manxxx 30caps on line, and phenylpropanolamine. Warnings and precautions, side effects, etc, of other ingredients should be kept in mind when prescribing. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: creatinine clearance 10–50 mL/min: reduce dose by 25%; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min: reduce dose by 50%. Do not discontinue unless no effect occurs after 3 months of use for rheumatoid arthritis. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: liver and renal disease. Advice to patient • Use two forms of birth control including hormonal and barrier methods. Editorial comments • Because of risk of severe bone marrow depression, frequent monitoring of complete blood counts and platelet counts are recommended. It is suggested that these should be performed weekly for the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months, and then monthly thereafter. Discontinuation of the drug is recommended if there is rapid development of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or other signs of bone marrow depression. Ran- domized, double blind placebo controlled trials have demon- strated efficacy of 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine in active or quiescent Crohn’s disease. Patients in these trials were often able to taper prednisone doses to 5 mg/d or less. Use latex gloves and safety glasses when han- dling parenteral form of this medication. Susceptible organisms in vivo: Like erythromicin but less active against gram-positive bacteria and more active against gram- negative bacteria. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that decrease effects/toxicity of macrolides: rifampin, antacids (aluminum, magnesium). Parameters to monitor • Signs and symptoms of superinfection, in particular pseudomem- branous colitis. Editorial comments • Azithromycin has the advantage of improved compliance com- pared with erythromycin because of better tolerability, daily dosage, and shorter course of therapy. Susceptible organisms in vivo: staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, Hemophilus influen- zae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp. Children >25 kg: 50 mg/kg/d, two equal doses • Gonorrhea, acute uncomplicated urogenital infections Adults: 1. Editorial comments • Bacampicillin has no advantage over ampicillin and has a sim- ilar spectrum of activity. Mechanism of action: Inhibits mono- and polysynaptic reflexes within the spinal cord resulting in decreased spasticity. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: seizures, decreased renal function. Sit at the edge of the bed for several minutes before standing, lie down if feeling faint or dizzy. Male patients with orthostatic hypotension may be safer urinating while seated on the toilet rather than standing. Editorial comments: Balclofen appears to also be an effective treatment for refractory hiccups (singultus). Mechanism of action: Inhibits elaboration of many of the medi- ators of allergic inflammation, eg, leukotrienes and other prod- ucts of the arachidonic acid cascade. Contraindications: Untreated fungal, bacterial, or viral infec- tions, untreated infections of nasal mucosa, hypersensitivity to corticosteroids. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: tuberculosis of the respiratory tract (active or quiescent), expo- sure to measles or chicken pox. Alternatively, adrenal insufficiency may occur: weakness, fatigue, nausea, anorexia. This may minimize the development of dry mouth, hoarseness, and oral fungal infection. Adverse reactions • Common: nasal irritation, cough, pharyngitis, sneezing attacks. Parameters to monitor • Signs and symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency, particu- larly in response to stress. If these occur, the dose of systemic steroid should be increased followed by slower withdrawal. However, there is considerable controversy with respect to the beneficial use of higher than recommended inhalation doses of these drugs. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance <30 mL/min: initial dose 5 mg/d. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: kidney disease, especially renal artery stenosis, drugs that cause bone marrow depression, hypovolemia, hyponatremia, cardiac or cerebral insufficiency, collagen vascular disease, lupus ery- thematosus, scleroderma, patients undergoing dialysis. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of benazepril: potassium- sparing drugs, other diuretics, guanethidine. Nearly every large randomized clinical trial examining their use has been favorable. Treatment with this class of drugs is the gold standard in patients with left ventricular systolic dys- function. As drugs in this class are vasodilators, orthostasis is another potential problem. Mechanism of action: Inhibits sodium resorption in distal tubule, resulting in increased urinary excretion of sodium, potasssium, and water.

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Abrupt withdrawal afer a prolonged period may lead to acute adrenal insufciency cheap 30 caps manxxx, hypotension or death (see Withdrawal of Systemic Cort- costeroids purchase 30caps manxxx with mastercard, below) purchase manxxx 30caps line. Withdrawal may also be associated with fever, myalgia, arthralgia, rhinits, conjunctvits, painful itchy skin nodules and weight loss. Cortcosteroid Cover During Stress: To compensate for a diminished adrenocortcal response caused by prolonged cortcosteroid treatment, any signifcant intercurrent illness, trauma, or surgery requires a temporary increase in cortcosteroid dose, or if already stopped, a tempo- rary re-introducton of cortcosteroid treatment. Anaesthetsts must therefore know whether a patent is taking or has been taking a cortcosteroid, to avoid a precipitous fall in blood pres- sure during anaesthesia or in the immediate postoperatve period. A suitable regimen for cortcosteroid replacement, in patents who have taken more than 10 mg prednisolone daily (or equivalent) within 3 months of surgery, is: • Minor surgery under general anaesthesia-usual oral cortcosteroid dose on the morning of surgery or hydrocortsone 25-50 mg intravenously at inducton; the usual oral cortcosteroid dose is recommenced afer surgery. Infectons: Prolonged courses of cortcosteroids increase susceptbility to infectons and increase their severity; clinical presentaton of infectons may also be atypical. Serious infectons, for example septcaemia and tuberculosis, may reach an advanced stage before being recognised, and amoebiasis or strongyloidiasis may be actvated or exacerbated (exclude before initatng a cortcosteroid in those at risk or with suggestve symptoms). Chickenpox Unless they have had chickenpox, patents receiving oral or parenteral cortcosteroids for purposes other than replace- ment should be regarded as being at risk of severe chickenpox on exposure. Passive immunizaton with varicella-zoster immunoglobulin is needed for exposed non-immune patents receiving systemic cortcosteroids or for those who have used them within the previous 3 months; varicella-zoster immunoglobulin should preferably be given within 3 days of exposure and no later than 10 days. Topical, inhaled or rectal cortcosteroids are less likely to be associated with an increased risk of severe chickenpox. Measles Patents taking cortcosteroids should be advised to take partcular care to avoid exposure to measles and to seek immediate medical advice if exposure occurs. In life-threatening diseases, high doses may be needed because the complicatons of therapy are likely to be less serious than the disease. In long-term therapy in rela- tvely benign chronic conditons such as rheumatoid arthrits, adverse efects ofen outweigh the advantages. In order to minimize the adverse efects, the maintenance dose should be kept as low as possible and if possible, single morning doses or alternate day therapy should be used. Glucocortcoids can improve the prognosis of serious conditons such as systemic lupus erythematosus, temporal arterits and polyarterits nodosa; in such disorders the efects of the disease process may be suppressed and symptoms relieved but the underlying conditon is not cured. In emergency situatons, hydrocortsone may be given intrave- nously; in the treatment of asthma, inhalaton therapy with beclomethasone may be used (chapter 20. Whenever possible, local treatment with creams, intra-artcular injec- tons, inhalatons, eye-drops or enemas should be used in preference to systemic therapy. Patents should be advised not to stop taking glucocortcoids abruptly unless permited by their doctor. Gradual withdrawal should be considered in those whose disease is unlikely to relapse and who have: • recently received repeated courses (partcularly if taken for longer than 3 weeks) • taken a short course within 1 year of stopping long- term therapy • other possible causes of adrenal suppression • received more than 40 mg daily prednisolone (or equivalent) • been given repeat doses in the evening • received more than 3 weeks’ treatment Abrupt withdrawal may be considered in those whose disease is unlikely to relapse and who have received treatment for 3 weeks or less and who are not included in the patent groups described above. During cortcosteroid withdrawal the dose may be reduced rapidly down to the physiological dosage (equivalent to 7. Assess- ment of the disease may be needed during withdrawal to ensure that relapse does not occur. Intramuscular injecton or slow intravenous injecton or intravenous infusion Adult- Initally 0. Contraindicatons See notes above; systemic infecton (unless life-threatening or specifc antmicrobial therapy given); avoid live virus vaccines in those receiving immunosuppressive doses (serum antbody response diminished); diabetes, hypertension, psychosis, osteoporosis, gastric ulceraton. Precautons Adrenal suppression during prolonged treatment which persists for years afer stopping treatment (see notes above); ensure patents understand importance of compliance with dosage and have guidance on precautons to reduce risks; monitor weight, blood pressure, fuid and electrolyte balance and blood glucose levels throughout prolonged treatment; infectons (greater susceptbility, symptoms may be masked untl advanced stage); clinical presentaton may be atypical; risk of chickenpox and measles increased (see notes above); quiescent tuberculosis- chemoprophylactc therapy during prolonged cortcosteroid treatment; elderly; children and adolescents (growth retardaton possibly irreversible); hypertension, recent myocardial infarcton (rupture reported), congestve heart failure, liver failure, renal impairment, diabetes mellitus including family history, osteoporosis (may be manifested as back pain, postmenopausal women at special risk), glaucoma including family history, epilepsy, psoriasis, peptc ulcer, hypothyroidism, history of steroid myopathy; lactaton (Appendix 7b); interactons (Appendix 6c); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Dose Oral Adult-20 to 30 mg daily in divided doses (usually 20 mg in the morning and 10 mg in early evening). Slow intravenous injecton or intravenous infusion Adult- Acute adrenocortcal insufciency: 100 to 500 mg, 3 to 4 tmes in 24 h or as required. Contraindicatons See notes above; systemic infecton (unless life-threatening or specifc antmicrobial therapy given); avoid live virus vaccines in those receiving immunosuppressive doses (serum antbody response diminished); ulcers. Precautons Refer cortcosteroids; lactaton (Appendix 7b); interactons (Appendix 6b, 6c, 6d); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Methyl Prednisolone* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons Cortcosteroid responsive conditons such as severe allergic rhinits, asthma, rheumatoid arthrits, osteoarthrits, collagen disease, dermatoses. Dose should be regulated in accordance with severity of conditon; large joints- 20 to 80 mg; medium joints- 10 to 40 mg; small joints- 4 to 10 mg directly in bursae. Contraindicatons Systemic fungal infecton (unless specifc antmicrobial therapy given); avoid live virus vaccines in those receiving immunosuppressive doses (serum antbody response diminished); hypersensitvity. Precautons Refer notes above; interactons (Appendix 6c, 6d); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Dose Oral Adult- Suppression of infammatory and allergic disorders: initally up to 10 to 20 mg daily (severe disease, up to 60 mg daily), preferably taken in the morning afer breakfast; dose can ofen be reduced within a few days, but may need to be contnued for several weeks or months. Myasthenia gravis: initally 10 mg on alternate days, increased in steps of 10 mg on alternate days to 1-1. Child- Fractons of adult dose may be used (At 1 year: 25% of adult dose; at 7 years: 50%; and at 12 years: 75%) but clinical factors must be given due weight. Contraindicatons See notes above; systemic infecton (unless life-threatening or specifc antmicrobial therapy given); avoid live virus vaccines in those receiving immunosuppressive doses (serum antbody response diminished). Precautons Refer notes above; hepatc impairment (Appendix 7a); lactaton (Appendix 7b); interactons (Appendix 6c, 6d); pregnancy (Appendix 7c). In the male, they are respon- sible for the development and maintenance of the sex organs and the secondary sexual characteristcs, normal reproduc- tve functon, and sexual performance ability in additon to stmulatng the growth and development of the skeleton and skeletal muscle during puberty. At high doses in the normal male androgens inhibit pituitary gonadotrophin secreton and depress spermatogenesis.

To understand conformity purchase manxxx 30 caps visa, it is necessary to specify the interrelations among the concrete nature of the stimulus materials cheap manxxx 30 caps with visa, the properties of the social context or framework buy discount manxxx 30 caps online, and the state of the person at the time of his reaction. The phrase "shifting of responses" refers to any of the several ways used to measure the effects of social influence. Numerous trials are administered under group conditions, with progressive shifts in responses evaluated as a function of differences -224- between trials (36, 51, 58). The procedure has been used with the autokinetic task (121), in judging the length of slots of light (97), and in estimating the number of dots (37). A change in responses to accord with those given by other members is regarded as conforming. No change or changes in an opposite direction are regarded as independent or resistant. When changes due to pressure persist in the post-pressure situation, the index is a measure of conversion. When the individual gives a conforming response in the pressure situation and returns to his independent position in a later testing situation, the shift can be interpreted as temporary conformity. An interpretation of independence or resistance can be made when an individual acts in a consistent manner from the pre-pressure to the post-pressure situation. A "sleeper effect" is said to occur when an individual maintains independence in the pressure situation, but shows the effects of the pressure situation in the post-pressure private situation. Performance of a comparable group of subjects tested under control conditions has provided standardization data as a basis for judging the degree of influence exerted by pressure conditions (31). Under conformity conditions, persons other than the subject give responses differing from the correct or preferred one. The number of times an individual gives a response either in the direction of the correct score or of the erroneous judgments constitutes his conformity score (1, 3, 8, 11, 18, 31, 34, 35, 48, 61, 71, 74, 77, 80, 87, 88, 89, 90, 96, 102, 103, 105, 106, 114, 119, 125, 126, 127, 128). The conformity -225- score distribution has been used to compare the personality characteristics of conformers and resisters (6, 7, 50, 65, 85, 86). Responses closer to the position represented by the background are interpreted as indicating a greater degree of conformity than more divergent responses. A modification of this method is establishment of a range of confederate responses so that if the critical subject reacts within that range, he is regarded as having conformed to the established pattern (16, 91, 122). The criterion of change is the average performance of the group on a single trial, or scores massed across trials, without regard for the serial order of changes. Variability has been similarly measured to determine the extent of decreases in the range of individual responses (11, 22, 63, 75, 81, 118, 121, 124). The frequency with which such a response occurs constitutes an index of conformity (5, 9, 19, 28, 38, 45, 53, 78, 83, 92, 93, 112, 116, 117). Unreadiness to yield under other conditions constitutes an index of resistance (13, 32, 33, 109). Summary A variety of experimental situations have been employed in the study of conformity, resistance, and conversion. These have been reviewed, together with various ways of measuring the impact of the social context on the critical subject, including those which constitute indices of conformity or conversion. Stimulus materials with certain characteristics have been employed most frequently. Relative simplicity and case of measurement of -226- elicited responses is one factor accounting for the choice of materials. They rarely have involved the type of activities that are subjected to conformity or conversion pressures in our daily lives. The situations often have a quality of artificiality that makes it difficult to draw general conclusions for use in interpreting reactions in more vital and real lifelike situations. The types of influences exerted have not been of an extreme emergency, or life and death character. To approximate more closely the life conditions of conformity, it will be necessary to design experimental situations in which the maintenance of resistance to conformity pressures places an individual in jeopardy of relinquishing valued status, prestige or membership, or where conversion is a means to attain important utilitarian objectives. Personality tests have been the most popular means of assessing the role personal characteristics play in conformity behavior. Most tests have been used in only one or two studies, with the result that relatively little direct comparison of findings is possible. Among six types of conformity indices, the change of scores between pregroup and postgroup conditions has been the most widely used measure. The deviation from correct or modal responses also has been a frequently used index of change. Factors Associated with Conformity Behavior A variety of factors have been shown to arouse conformity and resistance behavior. This Ieview of findings includes sections on results of differences in the shifting of responses attributable to: (a) the nature of the stimulus materials employed to evoke conformity; (b) characteristics of the social situation; and (c) the contribution of personal factors in determining the adjustment made under conformity- producing conditions. Also included is a summary of studies of interaction effects among factors that increase or decrease conformity behavior. Differences in Shifting of Responses Attributable to Stimulus Materials Employed Several studies have evaluated those differences in conformity behavior that are associated with the nature of the stimulus materials -227- and the conditions of their presentation. Helson, Blake, and Mouton (61) studied the frequency of shifting as a function of the content of the task. Greater shifting of responses from the correct or modal report toward the erroneous responses expressed by others was observed for attitude statements than for materials involving knowledge or ability. Festinger and Thibaut (41) employed two different discussion problems as stimulus materials, and reported results consistent with those by Helson, Blake, and Mouton (61). Crutchfield (34) presented a variety of stimulus materials to a test sample under social pressure conditions. Since he describes results obtained for some but not all the materials, it is impossible to determine if response shifts are a function of the character of the stimulus materials.

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