By B. Nerusul. Drake University. 2018.

Contrasting Naturopathy to Allopathy You may be asking how naturopathic physicians view health differently from conventional medical doctors discount fluticasone 500mcg online asthma definition 35. First of all buy fluticasone 100 mcg without a prescription asthmatic bronchitis 10, by definition and philosophy most conventional medical doctors practice allopathic medicine generic 100mcg fluticasone mastercard asthmatic bronchitis yellow. Allopathy refers to conventional medicine as practiced by a graduate of a medical school or college granting the degree of doctor of medicine (M. It is a system of medicine that focuses primarily on treating disease rather than on promoting health. The fundamental difference between naturopathy and allopathy is that the allopathic physician tends to view good health primarily as a physical state in which there is no obvious disease present. In contrast, naturopathic physicians recognize true health as the state of optimal physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. The key difference between naturopathic and allopathic physicians is apparent if we look at how each type of doctor views not only health but also disease. To illustrate the differences, let’s take a look at how each views and addresses the “infection equation. In the infection equation, what determines the outcome is the interaction of the host’s immune system with the infecting organism. A naturopathic doctor tends to use treatments designed to enhance the immune system, while most conventional doctors tend to use treatments designed to kill the invading organism. Conventional medicine has been obsessed with infective agents rather than host defense factors. This obsession really began with Louis Pasteur, the 19th-century physician and researcher who played a major role in the development of the germ theory. This theory holds that different diseases are caused by different infectious organisms, with the patient as a passive victim. Much of Pasteur’s life was dedicated to finding substances that would kill the infecting organisms. Pasteur and others since him who pioneered effective treatments of infectious diseases have given us a great deal, for which we all should be thankful. Another 19th-century French scientist, Claude Bernard, also made major contributions to medical understanding. Bernard believed that the state of a person’s internal environment was more important in determining disease than the pathogen itself. In other words, Bernard believed that the person’s internal “terrain,” or susceptibility to infection, was more important than the germ. Physicians, he believed, should focus more attention on making this internal terrain a very inhospitable place for disease to flourish. In fact, a firm advocate of the germ theory would find some of these studies to be absolutely crazy. One of the most interesting studies was conducted by a Russian scientist named Élie Metchnikoff, the discover of white blood cells. He and his research associates consumed cultures containing millions of cholera bacteria, yet none of them developed cholera. Metchnikoff believed, like Bernard, that the correct way to deal with infectious disease was to focus on enhancing the body’s own defenses. During the last part of their lives, Pasteur and Bernard engaged in scientific discussions on the virtues of the germ theory and Bernard’s perspective on the internal terrain. There is little argument, for example, that when used appropriately, antibiotics save lives. However, there is also little argument that antibiotics are grossly overprescribed. While the appropriate use of antibiotics makes good medical sense, what does not make sense is the reliance on antibiotics for such conditions as acne, recurrent bladder infections, chronic ear infections, chronic sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, and nonbacterial sore throats. The antibiotics rarely provide a substantial benefit, and these conditions are effectively treated with natural measures. The widespread use and abuse of antibiotics is increasingly alarming for many reasons, including the near epidemic of chronic candidiasis as well as the development of “superbugs” that are resistant to currently available antibiotics. We are coming dangerously close to a “post-antibiotic era” in which many infectious diseases will once again become almost impossible to treat. The consensus of medical experts as well as the World Health Organization is that antibiotic use must be restricted and inappropriate use halted if the growing trend toward bacterial resistance to antibiotics is to be halted and reversed. Our interpretation of this challenge is that it is going to force conventional medical thinkers to take a closer look at ways to enhance resistance against infection. There is an ever-increasing body of knowledge that supports the use of whole foods, nutritional supplements, and a healthful lifestyle and attitude in enhancing resistance to infection. For example, children deficient in any of a large number of nutrients, such as vitamin A, vitamin C, and zinc, are far more susceptible to a wide range of infectious agents. While in the short term antibiotics may be critically important, in the long run they do nothing to improve an impaired immune system, so infections continue to recur. Using Naturopathic Medicine as a Treatment In addition to promoting good health, natural medicines such as herbal products and nutritional supplements are often used as direct substitutes for conventional drugs. However, an important distinction must be made: in most cases the use of these natural medicines involves promoting the healing process rather than suppressing symptoms. To illustrate this point, let’s look at osteoarthritis (the most common form of arthritis) and consider the natural approach vs. Its gel-like nature provides protection to the ends of joints by acting as a shock absorber. This degeneration causes inflammation, pain, deformity, and limitation of motion in the joint.

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These parasites can be Diagnosis in Dead Birds recovered by slitting the shaft lengthwise and plac- Any bird that dies should be necropsied and tissues ing it in alcohol buy fluticasone 100 mcg with visa asthma clinical definition. Bird fleas can be manu- are identified fluticasone 100mcg mastercard asthma red zone treatment, they should be collected for classifica- ally removed cheap fluticasone 500mcg otc asthma symptoms list. Blue-fronted Amazon, 47 x 25 cyst from Toco Toucan, 23 x 18 µm, laminated-appearing egg µm, note the 4 sporocysts each µm, same sporocysts arrange- with central larva (acanthor). The complete gastrointestinal tract should be opened lengthwise, section by section. In small birds, each section of bowel may be opened in a series of petri dishes containing water. In large birds, the bowel contents should be washed through #40 and #100 standard sieves. Detection and recovery of House Sparrow, 25 x 25 µm, note from Red-shouldered Hawk, 36 x helminths can also be accomplished by placing the 2 sporocysts each with four sporo- 31 µm, note single sporocyst and gut contents into one-liter flasks and allowing a sedi- zoites. Parenchymous organs should be organism is contributing to a specific set of clinical sequentially sliced and evaluated for the presence of changes (Figure 36. The body cavities, air sacs and orbits of the eyes should be examined grossly for worms. Skin It is always a good policy to contact the parasitologist over swellings on the feet or legs should be excised, and request special submission instructions. Para- and the area should be examined for the presence of sites for classification should be collected from each adult filarial worms. All recoverable parasites should affected organ, placed in separate containers and be collected to maximize the information that can be fixed as discussed below. Other useful information in- should kill and fix the nematodes in a straight, un- cludes whether the bird was imported or captive- coiled manner. They should then be transferred into raised, its duration in captivity and the number of glycerin alcohol (9. The bird was emaciated Gastrointestinal Flagellates and dehydrated and had dried excrement around the vent. The bird did not respond to supportive care and died several hours after Protozoans with flagella that reside in the gastroin- presentation. Tapeworms (arrows) were identified in the intestinal testinal tract of psittacine birds includeTrichomonas tract. Infected adults can transmit the para- lected should have an intact scolex (holdfast), which site to their chicks during feeding activities. There is no resistant cyst form, and Trematodes should be relaxed by placing them in tap only the motile trophozoite has been described. Acanthocephalans should be gently removed from Depending on the species, infections may be localized the gut wall to prevent rupture of the parasite, which in the mouth, oropharynx, esophagus, crop and tra- will destroy the hydraulic system that extends the chea, or the pulmonary and hepatic tissues can be proboscis (making identification of the parasite invaded. Acanthocephalans may lose their white plaques on the gastrointestinal mucosa or ne- torpor and detach from the gut wall when the host crosis with an accumulation of cheesy material that dies. They may then resemble a yellowish to whitish, might occlude the esophagus and trachea. Placing the parasite into crowding and poor hygiene may potentiate infections tap water overnight in a refrigerator may cause the in individual birds as well as increasing the incidence proboscis to extend, at which point the parasite is of disease in a flock. In adult birds, infections are usually charac- A fecal examination should be performed at necropsy terized by emaciation, dyspnea or vomiting. A patho- so that eggs detected by fecal flotation or sedimenta- genic strain caused the death of all ages of naive tion can be compared to the eggs in the adult worms. Birds that recover particularly common in pigeons and raptors (frounce) from an infection are susceptible to re-infection indi- (see Chapter 8). Pathogenic and nonpathogenic cating that a long-lasting protective immune re- strains of T. Direct transmission occurs following the in- masses are difficult to treat and generally have a gestion of food contaminated with feces from infected poor prognosis (see Chapter 19). The environmentally stable cysts can serve as a source of infection to other hosts. Flotation techniques group of 77 parakeets from several sources, 66% of with zinc sulfate may improve the accuracy of a the birds were found to be shedding Giardia. Dry skin and feather picking, particularly in the carpal-metacarpal, flank, axilla and lower leg areas, has been described as a clinical sign of giardiasis in budgerigars and cockatiels (see Chapter 24). Giardi- asis can cause poor growth and high mortality in budgerigar and cockatiel neonates. Mortality rates of 20 to 50% have been described in some infected budg- erigar flocks. The role that the immune system plays in preventing a bird from developing giardiasis has not been determined. Trophozoites can range from 10 to 20 µm Most infections occur following the ingestion of in- in length and 5 to 15 µm in width, depending on the fected embryonated eggs of the cecal worm Heterakis host or type of fixation. The histomonas are released from the paired flagella (including an anterior and trailing larvae and invade the wall of the cecum where they posterior pair), two nuclei and a sucking disc that may cause ulceration or small nodules. The sucking disc may be seen if the light is adjusted Coccidia to maximize contrast. Cysts are believed to be inter- Coccidian parasites include a variety of life styles mittently shed in the feces, and multiple samples and means of transmission. Oocysts of most genera must be examined before considering that a bird is are passed unsporulated.

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