By N. Tempeck. Gonzaga University.

Observations generic 30mg imdur free shipping, primarily from animal experimentation generic imdur 30mg without prescription, led to the following surmises order 30 mg imdur with visa. First, and earliest, were possibilities suggested by observations of Penfield (46) that cortical stimulation might elicit "memory" and some spontaneous verbalization of information. Second, animal experiments raised the possibility that subjective experiences from subcortical stimulation might be so intense as to provide a basis for the administration of reinforcements of unprecedented strength. Also, the possibility was raised that organisms might be made more "teachable" by direct interventions of this kind. Colonel Marvin found that experimentation had not progressed sufficiently to allow for other than conjectural statements regarding the questions raised. In conclusion it should be said that in its current status: (1) subcortical electrostimulation is strictly in the research stage of development and that information is sketchy and variable, (2) precise implantation of electrodes into a given brain location is possible only within ±0. Also excluded from these pages is a consideration of the role of Pavlovian conditioned reflex theory in interrogation. The notoriety attained by this theory, as explaining the inspiration and effectiveness of Communist techniques of coercive interrogation (20, 32, 36, 52), has prompted studies by other investigators. A number of students of the subject (2, 4, 17, 18, 55, 56) have refuted the contention that Pavlovian theory influenced these practices, whereas Schein (56) and Farber, Harlow, and West (10) indicate the inadequacy of simple conditioning models to account for the kinds of complex behavior patterns produced in the course of interrogation. Contributors have been free to choose eclectically whatever models and theories appeared most adequate to their respective topics. On the whole, matters of length, level of generality, and organization similarly have been left to the judgment of the individual contributors. In those cases where the contributors to this book were not themselves highly conversant with interrogation practices, the editors have drawn on their own experience and on research that they have conducted on interrogation in advising the contributors and in editing the chapters. The editors thus actively sought to increase the relevance of the reviews to the realities of interrogation. Lackland Air Force Base, Texas: Air Force Personnel and Training Research Center, December 1956. Effects of Communist indoctrination attempts: Some comments based on an Air Force prisoner-of-war study. Social-psychological needs and "involuntary" behavior as illustrated by compliance in interrogation. Factors used to increase the susceptibility of individuals to forceful indoctrination: Observations and experiments. Are the Cominform countries using hypnotic techniques to elicit confessions in public trials? Communist interrogation, indoctrination and exploitation of American military and civilian prisoners. Introduction When an interrogation is carried out for the purposes of intelligence, we may assume that it is intended to obtain information and not simply to produce compliant behavior on the part of the man being interrogated. One might describe an interrogator as a man who tries to obtain information from another man who may or may not possess it and who is not necessarily motivated to give the information if he does. The interrogator would like to have this man produce his information rapidly, accurately, completely, and without amendments or additions. In the words of the law, he wants "the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth" — and often he wants this as soon as possible because the information that he seeks has perishable qualities. In the urgency of his need, he may interrogate a man who is injured, fatigued, or in pain. In doing so he incurs the risk that his efforts may produce compliant behavior without eliciting accurate information. The information that the interrogator seeks represents what his source still knows about various events, situations, organizations, devices, etc. The most complete and accurate information that he can hope to obtain can be only an approximation of the "true facts of the case" even "under -19- the best circumstances. The term "circumstances" is taken to mean "the condition of the man being interrogated and the situation in which he finds himself at the time. The human brain, the repository of the information that the interrogator seeks, functions optimally within the same narrow range of physical and chemical conditions that limit the functions of human organs in general; and it has, in addition, certain special limitations of its own. Any circumstance that impairs the function of the brain potentially affects the ability to give information as well as the ability to withhold it. Effects of Disturbed Bodily Functions Upon Brain Function Some aspects of the physical and chemical conditions necessary for the normal function of the human brain are rather precisely known. The brain, like other organs of the human body, exists in an "internal milieu" which is maintained in a remarkably steady state by a great number of feedback mechanisms, some quite complex. Any disturbance in the constancy of this milieu brings into play homeostatic responses which may involve the great majority of bodily processes as well as the activities of the man as a whole. When environmental conditions pose a threat, these mechanisms are capable of creating major alterations in the internal economy and in many facets of behavior (59, 129, 130). It is largely in this manner that changes in the condition of the man being interrogated may affect his ability to give accurate information. Some features of the internal milieu may be considered briefly in order to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities of the brain to external influences. A rise in temperature above 44° C (112° F) (10, 33, 121), or a fall below 24° C (75° F) (73, 116) may damage the brain permanently or be fatal. An elevation of body temperature to 41° C (106° F) or above — which may occur during the fever accompanying -20- disease or during heat stroke — nearly always impairs brain function. Similarly, a depression of body temperature to approximately 31° C (88° F) — a level which is sometimes produced artificially during anesthesia or which may occur naturally in men after extreme exposure to cold — also impairs brain function (2, 9, 37, 62, 123). The nature of the impairments of brain function that occur during these and similar disturbances of homeostasis are discussed shortly. These impairments show many points of similarity, regardless of the conditions causing them.

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Seeds (except embryonic words "pasteurized" or "frozen pas- seeds and small fragments of seeds that teurized" shall be shown on labels in cannot be separated by good manufac- letters not less than one-half the turing practice) are removed imdur 30 mg, and pulp and orange oil may be adjusted in ac- height of the letters in the words "or- cordance with good manufacturing ange juice" cheap imdur 20 mg visa. If the adjustment involves the (2) If the pasteurized orange juice is addition of pulp discount imdur 60 mg line, then such pulp shall filled into containers and refrigerated, not be of the washed or spent type. The the label shall bear the name of the solids may be adjusted by the addition food, "chilled pasteurized orange of one or more of the optional con- juice". If it does not purport to be ei- centrated orange juice ingredients ther canned orange juice or frozen pas- specified in paragraph (b) of this sec- teurized orange juice, the word tion. One or more of the optional "chilled" may be omitted from the sweetening ingredients listed in para- name. The words "pasteurized" or graph (c) of this section may be added "chilled pasteurized" shall be shown in in a quantity reasonably necessary to letters not less than one-half the raise the Brix or the Brix-acid ratio to height of the letters in the words "or- any point within the normal range usu- ange juice". I (4–1–10 Edition) statement "prepared in part from con- this section may be added, in a quan- centrated orange juice" or "with added tity reasonably necessary to raise the concentrated orange juice" or "con- Brix or the Brix-acid ratio to any point centrated orange juice added". However, for the purpose of this the Brix hydrometer reading to the section, the name "sweetener" may be grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 used in lieu of the specific name or milliliters of juice is not less than 9 to names of the sweetening ingredients. All the words in the follow the name of the food, without name shall appear in the same size, intervening written, printed, or graph- color, and style of type and on the ic matter. Each of the in- the food is not sold under refrigeration gredients used in the food shall be de- clared on the label as required by the and if it does not purport to be chilled applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 pasteurized orange juice or frozen pas- of this chapter. How- unfermented juice obtained from ma- ever, for the purpose of this section, ture oranges of the species Citrus the name "sweetener" may be used in reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids lieu of the specific name or names of (except that this limitation shall not the sweetening ingredients. Seeds (except embryonic pears on the label so conspicuously as seeds and small fragments of seeds that to be easily seen under customary con- cannot be separated by good manufac- ditions of purchase, the statement turing practice) are removed. Orange specified in this section for naming the oil and pulp may be adjusted in accord- optional ingredients used shall imme- ance with good manufacturing prac- diately and conspicuously precede or tice. The adjustment of pulp referred to follow the name of the food, without in this paragraph does not permit the intervening written, printed, or graph- addition of washed or spent pulp. To such mixture gredients used in the food shall be de- may be added orange juice as defined in clared on the label as required by the §146. The finished orange from the juice of mature oranges as juice from concentrate contains not provided in §146. In its preparation, (c) The name of the food is "Orange seeds (except embryonic seeds and juice from concentrate". The words small fragments of seeds that cannot "from concentrate" shall be shown in be separated by good manufacturing letters not less than one-half the practice) and excess pulp are removed, height of the letters in the words "or- and a properly prepared water extract ange juice". Orange oil, orange pulp, orange centrate contains any optional sweet- essence (obtained from orange juice), ening ingredient as listed in paragraph orange juice and other orange juice (b) of this section, whether added di- concentrate as provided in this section rectly as such or indirectly as an added or concentrated orange juice for manu- ingredient of any orange juice product facturing provided in §146. I (4–1–10 Edition) added in single strength or con- "frozen concentrated orange juice, centrated form prior to concentration lll plus 1" or "frozen orange juice of the Citrus sinensis juice, or in con- concentrate, lll plus 1", the blank centrated form during adjustment of being filled in with the whole number the composition of the finished food. However, where the label bears aurantium, or both, shall not exceed, on directions for making 1 quart of orange a single-strength basis, the 10 percent juice from concentrate (or multiples of maximum for Citrus reticulata and the 5 a quart), the blank in the name may be percent maximum for Citrus aurantium filled in with a mixed number; for ex- prescribed by this paragraph. Any of ample, "frozen orange juice con- the ingredients of the finished con- centrate, 41⁄3 plus 1". For containers centrate may have been so treated by larger than 1 pint, the dilution ratio in heat as to reduce substantially the en- the name may be replaced by the con- zymatic activity and the number of centration of orange juice soluble sol- viable microorganisms. The finished ids in degrees Brix; for example, a 62° food is of such concentration that when Brix concentrate in 31⁄2-gallon cans diluted according to label directions may be named on the label "frozen con- the diluted article will contain not less centrated orange juice, 62° Brix". The dilution ratio shall be ditions of purchase, the statements not less than 3 plus 1. For the purposes specified in this section for naming the of this section and §146. Each of the in- (c) If one or more of the sweetening gredients used in the food shall be de- ingredients specified in paragraph (b) clared on the label as required by the of this section are added to the frozen applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 concentrated orange juice, the label of this chapter. A process involving the use The name of the food concentrated to a of anionic ion-exchange resins per- dilution ratio greater than 3 plus 1 is mitted by §173. If pulp is added it shall be other than (b) The name of the food when con- washed or spent pulp. The juice or por- centrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 tions thereof may be so treated by heat is "Canned concentrated orange juice" as to reduce substantially the enzy- or "Canned orange juice concentrate". It complies with the re- "Canned orange juice concentrate, 41⁄3 quirements for composition of orange plus 1". For containers larger than 1 juice for manufacturing as provided for pint, the dilution ratio in the name in §146. It may be of orange juice soluble solids in degrees heat-treated to reduce substantially the enzymatic activity and the number Brix; for example, a 62° Brix con- of viable microorganisms. If the food does safe and suitable preservatives or com- not purport to be frozen concentrated binations thereof. If the safe and suitable preservatives or com- food is packed in container sizes that binations thereof. Each of the in- ditions of purchase, the statement gredients used in the food shall be de- specified in paragraph (d) of this sec- clared on the label as required by the tion for naming the preservative ingre- applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 dient used shall immediately and con- of this chapter. In addition, the name spicuously precede or follow the name of each preservative shall be preceded of the food, without intervening writ- by a statement of the percent by ten, printed, or graphic matter. The blank being filled in with the figure juice may have been concentrated and showing the concentration of orange later reconstituted with water suitable juice soluble solids in degrees Brix. It may be sweetened with preservative complies with the require- any safe and suitable dry nutritive car- ments for composition and labeling of bohydrate sweetener.

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Refractive index: The measurement of the bending of a ray of light as it passes from one medium into another generic imdur 20 mg amex. Sampling frame: A list or other device used to defne a researcher’s popula- tion of interest order 30mg imdur with amex. It defnes a set of elements from which a researcher can select a sample of the target population 60mg imdur visa. This technique sputters the surface of a specimen with a focused primary ion beam and collects and analyzes ejected secondary ions. The mass-to-charge ratios of these secondary ions are measured with a mass spectrometer to determine the elemental, isotopic, or molecular composi- tion of the surface. Unique codes are placed on each unit packaged, using variable data printers or preprinted labels or cartons, and then read by a vision system. These unique codes are uploaded to an event repository database that can be accessed by various parties, including pharmacists, law enforcement of- fcials, and even consumers after the product is shipped and sold. Slum: A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard hous- ing and squalor. Solid dose formulation: A mixture of active pharmaceutical ingredients and nondrug components in solid form, such as a pill, tablet, or capsule. Solubility: The ability of a substance to dissolve and form a homogeneous substance. Spectrometer: An instrument used for measuring the interaction of light with a substance (e. Spectroscopy: The study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter. The focus is the repeated application of unchanged processes and procedures and its documentation in order to segregate origins, causes and effects. Substandard: A drug that fails to meet national specifcations outlined in an accepted pharmacopeia or in the manufacturer’s dossier. Substandard drugs are usually made by legitimate, known manufacturers and are the result of quality system failures. Supply chain: A system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform natural resources, raw materials, and components into a fnished product that is delivered to the end customer. Surveillance is one of a number of methods used by epidemi- ologists to gather information on a disease. Tandem mass spectrometry: A technique involving multiple rounds of mass spectrometry, usually separated by some form of molecule fragmentation. For example, one mass analyzer can isolate one peptide from many entering a mass spectrometer. A second mass analyzer then stabilizes the peptide ions while they collide with a gas, causing them to fragment by collision-induced dissociation. An important application using tandem mass spectrometry is in protein identifcation. These experiments are used to increase specifcity of detection of known molecules, notably in pharmacokinetic studies. Precursor ion scanning re- fers to monitoring for a specifc loss from the precursor ion. The frst and second mass analyzers scan across the spectrum as partitioned by a user- defned m/z value. Specifc tasks are moved, where appropriate, from highly qualifed health workers to health workers with shorter training and fewer qualifca- tions in order to make more effcient use of the available human resources for health care delivery. Technology transfer: A process for the transfer of information or technol- ogy between a technology supplier and a recipient. It can range from the exchange of technical knowledge through formal documentation, such as a license to exploit a patent, or through technical know-how and assistance in reverse engineering an imitation of a product. Tendering: The process by which a procurement agency invites potential suppliers to bid for a contract. Tertiary packaging: Extra packaging intended to protect one or more wrapped items during transport and storage. After the sample has been applied to a plate, a solvent or solvent mixture (known as the mobile phase) is drawn up to the plate via capillary action. This technique is used in synthetic chemistry for identifying compounds, determining their purity, and following the progress of a reaction. Tiered pricing: The concept that different classes of buyers are charged dif- ferent prices for the same product. Tiered production: The production of different-quality product lines for different markets. Time-of-fight mass spectrometry: A method of mass spectrometry in which an ion’s mass-to-charge ratio is determined via a time measurement. This acceleration results in an ion having the same kinetic energy as any other ion that has the same charge. The time that it subsequently takes for the particle to reach a detector at a known distance is measured. This time will depend on the mass-to-charge ratio of the particle (heavier particles reach lower speeds). From this time and the known experimental parameters, the mass-to-charge ratio of the ion can be determined. Track-and-trace: The process of determining past and current locations of a unique item. It gives manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies a systemic method to detect and control counterfeiting, drug diversions, and mishandling. Trade dress: Visual characteristics of the appearance of a product or its packaging.

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